One of the most evident features of recent sanctions practice is that measures are gradually becoming less 'targeted'. Targeted sanctions are designed to affect those individuals and elites responsible for the policies condemned by the sender, rather than the population as a whole.
The present talk considers the extent to which autonomous sanctions fulfil this objective by scrutinising three established sanctions strands of the EU: Common Foreign and Security Policy CFSP sanctions, development aid suspensions and Generalised Scheme of Preferences GSP withdrawals. It is argued that the notion of targeted sanctions has been more faithfully implemented in some strands of EU sanctions than in others, and that court challenges have driven the modification of selection criteria in the 'flagship' CFSP sanctions practice that accounts for the increasingly broad nature of the measures.
The playing phase is the main part of the game and is divided into several rounds; each represents a modeled period of time in the game world. If it is the first period, learners have to analyze the starting situation and, by reference to the game goals, construct a game strategy, which set the guidelines for later decisions. After decisions are made at the end of each round, they will be evaluated and their effects will be presented.
Then learners will have to analyze the effects of their last decisions as well as the actualized situation to adjust their strategies and make new decisions. In general, by adjusting their decisions in each round of the game and observing the consequent results, participants have the ability to experiment with and explore the simulated system.
During the debriefing phase , learners emerge from the game world and discuss with each other to review their experiences and impressions. Then they begin examining the simulation model which they just played to identify the equivalence between the modeled and the real world. In the last step of the debriefing phase, learners only focus on the equivalences they already identified and consider which experiences to be relevant to them and will be kept and applied after the course cf. Steinwachs , p. Early business games were hand-scored by instructors.
This imposed limitations on the complexity of the model and also on the number of variables included, the number of participants and the number of products and markets in the game world cf. Moreover, the workloads of participants and instructors while playing hand-scored games were high which resulted in various kinds of errors cf. As business school started to adopt mainframe computers and along with the introduction and the pervasion of microcomputers, the mentioned limitations were removed. Many business games were migrated to these platforms and even more have been newly developed exclusively for microcomputers cf.
There are general and particular features that the microcomputer contributes to simulation game. The general features include, among others, lower cost, better accessibility, better user-friendliness and easier software installation and administration cf. Particularly for simulation games, microcomputers with their increasing computation capability allow the construction of more complex models, which consequently increases the number of participants, and the level of detail of the games cf.
Furthermore, the enhanced graphical user interface in microcomputers enables audio-visual contents to be embedded in programs and support all phases of the business gaming process by, for instance, giving graphical instructions or providing more detailed feedbacks cf. This generation of business simulation game can be regarded as computer-based business simulation game and is related to computer-based training.
Add to cart. Table of contents List of abbreviations 1 Introduction 2 What are IT-based business simulation games? Sivasailam "Thiagi" Thiagarajan - Simulation gaming has a long history, which can be traced back to ancient China about years ago cf. Simulation and Gaming. Smit, P. Smith, G. Smith, N. Smoker, P. Dieser Artikel behandelt einige grundlegende Probleme bei der Gestaltung von Planspielen u. Mimeograph, Sept. Spencer, Donald D. Sprague, H.
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